Its legality continues to be questioned because it was a United States Government resolution, not a treaty of cession or conquest as is required by international law. Soon after, President Benjamin Harrison submitted a treaty to annex the Hawaiian islands to the U. They collected over 21,000 signatures from natives on the five main Hawaiian islands—or more than fifty percent of all native Hawaiians. The United States and the Hawaiian Kingdom: A Political History. Boston, the Committee on Annexation overthrew Queen Lili'uokalani in a bloodless coup on January 17, 1893 and established a revolutionary regime.
But the president of the Provisional Government of Hawaii, Sanford Dole, refused to turn over power, objecting that the United States had no right to interfere in the internal affairs of Hawaii. The Hui Aloha Aina for Women and the Hui Aloha Aina for Men now organized a mass petition drive. The petitions are available on microfilm as publication M1897. Shortly into his presidency, Cleveland appointed James Blount as a special investigator to investigate the events in the Hawaiian Islands. ©1999 National Council for the Social Studies. The leaders of the revolt were imprisoned along with Queen Lili'uokalani who was jailed for failing to put down the revolt.
During the next three years, the native Hawaiians protested the overthrow of the Lili'uokalani government and the possible annexation of Hawaii. Eventually, the monarchy itself was abandoned in favor of a government elected by a small group of enfranchised voters, although the Hawaiian monarch was retained as the ceremonial head of the government. Source The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii. In succeeding years, there was growing sentiment among white businessmen that annexation by the United States, the major importer of Hawaiian agricultural products, would be beneficial for the economy of Hawaii. Allow time for these volunteers to share what they learn about these cultural topics with the whole class. President Cleveland then appointed James Blount as Special Commissioner to Hawaii to investigate the United States role in the overthrow of the queen.
In 1893 the last monarch of Hawaii, Queen Lili'uokalani, was overthrown by party of businessmen, who then imposed a provisional government. Allow time for some of the students to read their papers aloud in class. The Homestead Act of 1862 Teaching Activities Standards Correlations This lesson correlates to the National History Standards. What are the benefits of statehood? President Benjamin Harrison signed a treaty of annexation with the new government, but before the Senate could ratify it, Grover Cleveland replaced Harrison as president and subsequently withdrew the treaty. Why do you suppose it was written in two languages? What was the purpose of the document? Instead, they developed plans to make Hawaii an independent republic.
Morgan who chaired the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, instead held hearings in Washington, D. Without permission from the State Department, Stevens recognized the revolutionary regime and proclaimed Hawaii a U. Therefore, there is nothing for the lahui to be suspicious about, or to be wary when the voice from the sea beckons. The previous president, Grover Cleveland, was a friend of Queen Liliʻuokalani. Senate during its debate on the treaty. Thus, Hawaii became a part of the United States.
After the United States seized the Philippines during the Spanish-American War, Congress annexed Hawaii in July 1898, granted it territorial status in 1900, and made it the 50th state in 1959. Perceiving the King as dishonest, unreliable, and anti-American, and wanting large tariffs to be removed from their sugar sales, a group of American and European business leaders gained control of the monarch with assistance of an armed militia. By the time the delegates left Washington on February 27, 1898, there were only 46 senators willing to vote for annexation. Minister to Hawaii, and a contingent of Marines from the warship, U. He also ordered that Queen Lili'uokalani be restored to power, but Sanford Dole, the president of the Provisional Government of Hawaii, refused to turn over power. Possibilities include: King Kalakaua, Lorrin Thurston, Queen Lili'uokalani, John Stevens, President Grover Cleveland, James Blount, Sanford Dole, Hui Hawaii Aloha Aina, Hui Hawaii Aloha Aina o Na Wahine, President James McKinley, James Kaulia, Senator George Hoar, or Secretary of State John Sherman. Assign each group an acquisition to research and report the following to the class: What peoples were native to each acquisition? However, the previous government—led by her brother King David Kalakaua 1836—1891 from 1874 to 1891—had continuing disputes with American and European businesspersons who were doing business in Hawaii, primarily in the agricultural industry as owners of sugar cane plantations.
Later the traditional Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in favor of a constitutional monarchy. Include American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia although this land was already part of the United States in the discussion. When King Kalakaua died in 1891, his sister Lili'uokalani succeeded him, and members of the native population persuaded the new queen to draft a new constitution in an attempt to restore native rights and powers. Why did the United States want to add the lands? On June 16, 1897, McKinley and three representatives of the government of the Republic of Hawaii --Lorrin Thurston, Francis Hatch, and William Kinney-- signed a treaty of annexation. Minister Albert Willis by Her Majesty Queen Lili'uokalani against the formation of the Republic of Hawai'i, June 20, 1894. The commission was established on July 9, 1898 after President McKinley signed the joint resolution of annexation on July 7, 1898 United States Department of Justice, Legal Issues Raised by Proposed Presidential Proclamation to Extend the Territorial Sea, Opinions of the Office of Legal Counsel, vol.
However, the actions of the white businesspeople driven by their monetary goals were stronger than the actions of the native Hawaiian people with their cultural goals. How and from whom were the lands obtained? Congress passed a joint resolution that was signed by President William Clinton. What type of document is it? When Queen Lili'uokalani accepted her country's leadership upon her brother's death, she attempted to return power to the native Hawaiians and resume friendly relations with the American and European business and political leaders. Follow up with a discussion about why the National Archives preserves and maintains for research the records of the U. From 1900 to 1959, Hawaii remained a U. . Follow up with a discussion about why the National Archives preserves and maintains for research the records of the U.
This is the heading of the petitions protesting the annexation of Hawaii to the United States of America in the original language, and translated into English, and as per the instruction and direction coming from America, we waited patiently until this proper time. Two gender-designated groups formed to protest the overthrow and prevent annexation: the Hui Hawaii Aloha Aina, loosely translated as the Hawaiian Patriotic League, and its female counterpart, the Hui Hawaii Aloha Aina o Na Wahine. Follow up with a discussion about why the National Archives preserves and maintains for research the records of the U. What is the date of the document? Assign students to write a reflective thought paper on what would be lost if we did not keep records of the past. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
What do you suppose were some of the objections to admitting Hawaii? The ensuing Spanish-American War, part of which was fought in the Philippine Islands, established the strategic value of the Hawaiian islands as a mid-Pacific fueling station and naval installation. What are the constitutional provisions for admitting states to the union? On June 16, 1897, McKinley and Hawaiian representatives signed a treaty of annexation. President Benjamin Harrison signed a treaty of annexation with the new government, but before the Senate could ratify it, Grover Cleveland replaced Harrison as president and subsequently withdrew the treaty. The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii When the Hawaiian islands were formally annexed by the United States in 1898, the event marked end of a lengthy internal struggle between native Hawaiians and white American businessmen for control of the Hawaiian government. Through the study of original documents in an archives, it is possible for historians and other scholars to piece together what happened in the past, which allows them to write more accurate history books. The 1897 Petition by the Hawaiian Patriotic League stands as evidence that the native Hawaiian people objected to annexation, but because the interests of the businessmen won out, over the coming decades most historians who wrote the history of Hawaii emphasized events as told by the Provisional Government and largely neglected the struggle of the Native Hawaiians. Today, there is a growing movement on the Islands to revive interest in the native Hawaiian language and culture.