The opposite could be any other philosophies that attribute meaning to existence. But here the French existentialist begs to differ. They focus almost exclusively on the individual. In the 20th-century Sartre and de Beauvoir were self-confessed Existentialists, but most other intellectuals eschewed the term. To say that both God and human beings are free leads to intolerable problems of theodicy and contradictions while to deny to freedom to both leads to an intolerably meaningless and actually impossible world. The natural response to this is to resign from life, but Kafka presents the situation with dry humor. He often referred to it as simply, The System.
The first is the reminder, vividly dramatised in fictional accounts, that philosophy is about human life and its problems and not just academic nitpicking about abstract and abstruse matters. It is therefore subject to change by a single individual if he acts bravely in contradiction to the accepted principles. Some Kierkegaard scholars claim that he wrote himself to death Anthony Imbrosciano, personal communication. It thus happens that in nearly all cultures certain people specialize in remembering and repeating what they have heard. Thus the Absolute is estranged from itself as it exists only in the development of finite spirit in historical time. However he also wrote, and is widely known for, novels, short stories and plays. Sartre argued that the existence of a God who was free, and so religiously interesting, would entail the cancellation of human freedom; but humans are free, therefore God does not exist.
Even if we set aside any doubts about the possibility of objective moral laws derived from God, nature or reason, they do not take us all the way to a decision. I have stripped myself of all unacceptable structure, the structures of knowledge, moral value, and human relationship, and I stand in anguish at the edge of the abyss. To do something because you are part of a group or want to be accepted into one following trends, for example nullifies your personal identity. Here is a list of themes that are important in existentialism. Dostoyevsky knew a little something about feeling powerless.
Given ultimate freedom, humans had ultimate responsibility for their own actions. Hence, we can say that existentialism is a reaction against post-enlightenment philosophy. Although he was active primarily in the first half of the nineteenth century, and dead shortly after it, he gained a sizeable audience outside his native Denmark only in our century. The art world has been enormously influenced by the current of existential thought, even from its very beginnings in the nineteenth century. There are two ways of looking at the society: One is a Secular way of looking and another is a way of looking. Once you emphasise the relevance of philosophy to human life, questions of moral choice become of central importance. But now we must ask: If this is indeed the human condition, if this is a true picture of the world in which the human subject absurdly finds himself, how is it possible to go on living in it? I am my own existence, but my existence is a nothingness.
They mock me, these lonely questions of mine. You may, for example, be a devout Christian accepting every injunction of the Bible and yet choose pacifism or believe in just wars according to your own interpretation. Indeed, some of the most important examples of existentialist writing are literary rather than purely philosophical. On his 25 th birthday he thoroughly reconciled with his father, and a few days later had some kind of conversion experience. Some may object to my argument so far that philosophers of the past did hold specific moral views that they offered as guidelines. They are not all taken up by every existentialist thinker and they are not entirely consistent with one another. People need to make meaning for themselves.
But who said this that my name is so and so? Bad Faith: Bad faith, or self-deception, is the attitude of those who seek to escape from the anguish and the nausea that inevitably follow the realisation that individuals are free and the world is ultimately absurd. Again, she is distinct because she is preoccupied with the problematic finitude of her existing way of being. At the same time, these great minds also produced works that challenged the status quo politically, most notably through the use of satirical works. If a person is apathetic or lacks initiative, it is because the person has chosen to be that way. Within the spacing of existence lies the comical aspect of Hegels philosophy: By beginning straightway with ethical categories against the objective tendency, one does wrong and fails to hit the mark, because one has nothing in common with the attacked. However, during the Enlightenment, figures of authority were now fair game.
In spite of certain borderline cases, it normally stands in direct contrast to written literature. Peter Rickman asks: why did existentialism resort to literary expression? The paradox can also be expressed by saying that there is an absolute duty toward God. For example, Kierkegaard expounded on three stages of life: the aesthetic, the ethical, and the religious, stressing the rational unaproachability especially of the transition from the ethical to the religious; the criterialessness of the choice to be religious is essential to the life of faith. There are semiprofessional storytellers around whom large groups of people assemble in bazaars or before cottage fires or in leisure hours after labour. After a death, Lucy feels overcome with despair and worthlessness. An excellent discussion of existentialist philosophy, written for the general public, is in William Barrett's, Irrational Man 1958.
The Religious Stage A movement into the religious form of life from the ethical is not possible, because the ethical life is one of reconciliation between the individual and the universal. Corbett -- What is Existentialism? The writings of Søren Kierkegaard provided the base upon which later thinkers and artists built up the edifice of existential philosophy. A speculation on the psychology and emotions of Abraham when asked by God to sacrifice his son Isaac, Fear and Trembling is a fundamental work in the canon of Christian existentialism. Another approach is taken by thinkers like Hegel or Marx who believe that we can discover the movement of history as the unfolding of reason, the advance of freedom or the movement towards a classless, just society. He advocated for the downtrodden, and continually struggled for a more egalitarian society based on the worth of each individual.