In the religious books also the state is said to be created by God. On Day 5 he created all the plants on earth. This analogy may be stretched to cover the human beings. Monarchy is hereditary and it is the divine right of a king that it should pass from father to son. Brahmins imposed restriction on food and social intercourse to preserve their purity necessary for the sacerdotal functions.
Speech acts can entail obligations, as we have seen with respect to the institution of promise making. . The formation of hierarchy became the basis of origin of caste system. His writ was carried out in the household. All this necessitated changes in the forms of social relations and man arrived at such advanced forms of social organisations as the nation state.
Evolutionary Theory: The evolutionary theory offers a generally correct explanation of the origin of society. In the fourth place, Sir Henry Maine over simplified the origin of the state by attribution it to the family alone. It passed through several stages of evolution before reaching its modern complex form. The classes, on the other hand, cooperated with each other and contributed in their way in the composite development of the state. The specific content of these divine commands varies according to the particular religion and the particular views of the individual divine command theorist, but all versions of the theory hold in common the claim that morality and moral obligations ultimately depend on God. Obedience to the King is ordained to God and violation of it will be a sin. In the political thought of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau may be found theoretical considerations of the practical issues that were to confront the authors of the American and French constitutions.
The Stuarts in England found refuge in the doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings and its leading exponent was James I. A Persistent Problem: The Euthyphro Dilemma The dialogue between Socrates and Euthyphro is nearly omnipresent in philosophical discussions of the relationship between God and ethics. Moreover, according to Donagan, even if we conceive of morality as did, namely, as a matter of virtue, it is quite natural to think that each virtue has as its counterpart some moral rule or precept. That God sent his Deputy or Vice-regent to rule over mankind. The influence of theories of social contract, especially as they relate to the issue of natural rights and the proper functions of government, effected the constitution-making of the revolutionary era that began with the War of American Independence and was indeed enshrined in the great political manifestos of the time, namely the Declaration of American Independence, the Bill of Rights and the French Declaration of the Rights of man and citizen.
The evolutionary theory of origin states that most states evolved from family. Biogenesis The belief that living things come only from other living things e. Thirdly, the socialists also, by condemning the coercive power of the state as one bent upon curbing and exploiting the workers, admit of force as the basis of the state. The vast majority of the states in the world today originate from social contract. In the ninth century A. It is the consequence of a long process of social evolution.
The theory concerning the emergence of life on the planet is Abiogenesis. Initially there were only three classes on the basis of complexion. Since the theory of Divine Original defended absolute authority, the democrats all the world over attacked from right and left. Conclusion: Religion, Morality, and the Good Life In his A Just Society 2004 , Michael Boylan argues that we must engage in self-analysis for the purpose of both constructing and implementing a personal plan of life that is coherent, comprehensive, and good. In his study of certain tribes east of the Naga Hills, Hutton found that in this area each village was an independent political unit and occupations were distributed by villages. It may alsorefer to biochemical processes of production in living organisms. Thus religion was the chief medium through which people were ruled over.
Thus three distinct classes emerged in society: a Endogamous marriage of the Aryans b Hypergamy and c Stray cases of exogamy. The king is treated as owing responsibility to God alone for his acts. The theory of divine origin of the state advocates only monarchical form of government. They practised hypergamy with the non-Aryans, but did not allow hypogamy with them. A group of clans constituted a tribe.
This gave the presumption that God had created the political unit by choosing his partners in an eternal covenant. Secondly, by emphasising the spiritual aspect of the church the clergymen condemned the authority of the state as one of brute force. Alston contended that God is the supreme standard of morality and acts according to his character, which is necessarily good. In such a condition their reason convinced them that they could best ensure their self-preservation by giving all powers to a sovereign. Other cultures are raised to think this is a natural and normal practice.
An important objection to the foregoing points is that there is something inadequate about a punishment and reward orientation of moral motivation. Take into consideration that at the time, the mean planetary surface temperature was much higher than now close to 90 degrees Celsius if I remember correctly. God gives purpose to our lives, and we are fulfilled in loving God. So this theory makes only a partial study of the origin of the state. The progressive growth from tribe to kingdom and from kingdom to empire is but a continuation from the same process.
The people began to accept only those things that stood the test of logic and reasoning. But this may not always lead to untouchability. This theory in course of time, particularly in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries took the form of Divine Right Theory. If the king did not fulfill his responsibilities, the people could replace him. New York: Oxford University Press. The theory asserts that what is moral is determined by what God commands, and that for a person to be moral is to follow his commands. Under such circumstances descendance is traced through the mother for, as Jens point out motherhood in such cases is a fact, while paternity is only an opinion.