Another point of criticism is that the Two Factor Theory assumes that job satisfaction equals higher productivity. Some of these factors can interchange their roles as well. After describing the story in detail, they were asked for another story at the other end of the continuum. Here, we see an aspect of recognition coming into play. Validity and criticisms In 1968 Herzberg stated that his two-factor theory study had already been replicated 16 times in a wide variety of populations including some in Communist countries, and corroborated with studies using different procedures that agreed with his original findings regarding intrinsic employee motivation making it one of the most widely replicated studies on job attitudes. Note that you will often see motivators referred to as factors for satisfaction, and hygiene factors referred to as factors for dissatisfaction. Herzberg claims these factors exist side by side.
Such things around achievement, recognition, work role, responsibility, advancement, and growth all have a part to play in effectively beginning to satisfy individuals. Process theories first attempt to define variables in choice, i. Accordingly, organizations focused on hygiene factors in an attempt to improve productivity. The major study used the critical incident technique and was conducted at nine sites within a 30 mile radius of Pittsburg. Although demographical information of the workers studied was not explicitly stated by the authors in the literature, it is implied that the majority of the workers studied were white males. The motivational factors yield positive satisfaction. The employee should be given as much autonomy as is reasonable.
Copyright © 1968 by the Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation; all rights reserved. Others include meal subsidy and utility allowances. The interviews delved into when the interviewees were at their most and least happiest with their jobs. In view of this, the employee who has worked for five years will only be motivated if his salary is different on account of performance and length in service. From this illustration it becomes apparent that happiness and pain are not polar opposites of the same feeling originating from the same source; that is, happiness and pain are not on the same continuum. Motivation factors are needed to motivate an employee to higher performance. High Hygiene and High Motivation This is the ideal situation and the one which every manager should strive for.
This study provided support for the two-factor theory in that the highest satisfaction scores were all intrinsic factors and the lowest satisfaction scores were all extrinsic factors. Inputs include qualification, experience, effort, and ability. This yielded 1006 results which I further narrowed down by selecting only peer-reviewed journal articles. Finally, I will discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this paper. Pittsburg: Psychological Service of Pittsburg. And while it cannot be concluded that only the motivational factors will provide job satisfaction and the hygiene factors will prevent dissatisfaction, employers can use these factors to discover what each employee values in order to motivate them appropriately. Overview The Two Factor Theory has had a considerable amount of practical and as well as theoretical influences.
In view of this, satisfied workers will be much more productive and be retained within the organisation for a longer period, in contrast to displeased workers who will be less useful and who will have a greater tendency to quit their jobs Crossman, 2003. The findings are inconclusive after 60 years of replication and will continue to be inconclusive regardless of any new studies generated. Managers should utilise the skills, abilities, and talents of the people at work through effective job designing. The second hypothesis stated that factors and effects involved in long-range sequences of events would differ from those in short-range sequences. Recognition which produces good feelings about the job does not essentially have to come from superiors; it may come from subordinates, peers, or customers. One set stems from his animal disposition, that side of him previously referred to as the Adam view of man; it is centered on the avoidance of loss of life, hunger, pain, sexual deprivation, and on other primary drives, in addition to the infinite varieties of learned fears that become attached to these basic drives.
The satisfaction of hygiene needs can prevent dissatisfaction and poor performance, but only the satisfaction of the motivation factors will bring the type of productivity improvement sought by companies Herzberg et al. Although empirical testing has declined since the 1970s, there is an occasional test in the 23 literature still. According to Herzberg, individuals are not content with the satisfaction of lower-order needs at work; for example, those needs associated with minimum salary levels or safe and pleasant working conditions. Herzberg offers another analogy-as follows-to help explain this way of thinking about job attitudes; let us characterise job satisfaction as vision and job dissatisfaction as hearing. If hygiene factors are absent, they can lead to creation of dissatisfaction among workers, but when they are adequate, they alone cannot lead to satisfying workers in the work environment. We can do this by improving the actual content of the job itself. Ford 1969 looked at the impact of job enrichment as a way of increasing employee satisfaction.
More importantly, satisfied workers not only perform better but also provide better service to customers, which could result in improving customer satisfaction. Similarly, the opposite of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 21 10 , 557-564. Thus, in order for managers to successfully motivate their employees, there is a need for them to determine the appropriate and the sufficient motivation factors to use. Expressed another way, through his research he was able to demonstrate that employee satisfaction Motivation and dissatisfaction at work are influenced by different organisational factors, and are not simply opposing employee reactions to the same organisational factors. There are plenty of reasons to disagree, like external factors that might influence productivity. It must be equal and competitive to those in the same industry in the same domain.
The main reasons people gave were lack of stimulus, and lack of opportunity for advancement. Offer your employees the opportunity to take on additional challenges and reward them accordingly. For example a worker will only turn up to work if a business has provided a reasonable level of pay and safe working conditions but these factors will not make him work harder at his job once he is there. Dunaway 2009 studied nurse practitioner job satisfaction using the two-factor theory. Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory of Motivation In 1959, Frederick Herzberg, a behavioural scientist proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-hygiene theory. Herzberg argues that these provide only short-run success because the motivator factors that determine whether there is satisfaction or no satisfaction are intrinsic to the job itself, and do not result from carrot and stick incentives.
This study did not seek to validate or replicate the two-factor theory; instead, the factors identified by Herzberg were used as the framework to study the difference between two countries. Herzberg found, for example, that good working conditions Physical, environment, congenial co-workers, good supervision were rarely named as factors contributing to job satisfaction; however, poor working conditions were frequently cited as sources of dissatisfaction. A company policy that treats workers well may not be motivation in itself if there is no clear career progression plan or it hinders progression whether through strict staff development policy or lack of provision of scholarships. There must be a fruit of some sort in the job. The author concluded that because of these hygiene factors, the field will always be plagued by high turnover which can only be combated with deliberate and aggressive attempts to create defined career paths and feasible promotional opportunities for its officers Udechukwu, 2009. When you're seeking to motivate people, firstly get rid of the things that are annoying them about the company and the workplace. In 1968, Herzberg indicated that there were 16 other studies from various parts of the world that use different population samples that are supportive of his original findings.
A manager must be sure to provide sufficient hygiene factors while at the same time building satisfiers or motivators into employee jobs. Once you've done this, look for ways in which you can help people grow within their jobs, give them opportunities for achievement, and praise that achievement wherever you find it. Although no empirical evidence was provided to support their model, the authors presented anecdotal evidence and called for further research. If employees believe that effort will be rewarded, there will be motivated effort, that is, they will decide to work harder to receive a reward. As a result, these states must be measured on different scales. While I understand Herzberg did not put this into the simplest of terms, a clearer explanation of this idea can be seen in this scenario: You work in an office where the roof is constantly leaking, the computers are always shorting out, and you never seem to be able to catch up on your work because of it. Poor company policies should be eliminated along with ensuring competitive wages and job security.