He was married on 28 April 1180 to , who brought the as her dowry. After the Halifax merchant Benjamin Gerrish had acquired a near monopoly of trade with the Indians in 1760, he made Knaut the Indian truckmaster at Lunenburg, one of six such salaried officers. As early as 1209 he had negotiated with the English barons who were hostile to John Lackland, and in 1212 with the and the. In the latter, the battle was instrumental in forming the strong central monarchy that would characterise France until the first. It was rediscovered when a ventilation shaft was dug during the construction of the Meteor. Internal Reforms While Philip was enlarging his kingdom, he was also developing and instituting a plan of whereby men were given high office on the basis of competence rather than hereditary right. Philip tried unsuccessfully to install his own candidate on the French throne, and Spanish troops became embroiled in the French wars.
But his knights had the best of a fierce melee and won the day. Philip initially allied with Henry's young sons, Richard the Lionheart and , who were in rebellion against their father. He shortly afterward expelled the Jews from France, seizing all buildings and other assets owned by Jews for his own use. The temporary harmony between the two powers was symbolized by Philip's marriage with Elizabeth of Valois, the daughter of the king of France, who proved to be his favorite wife. Philip pushed the case further when King asked for the widow's hand in marriage, and thus her dowry had to be returned, to which Henry finally agreed. The construction cost was slightly more than 14,000 during the roughly twenty years of the construction: representing about 12 percent of the king's annual revenues in the 13th century.
A member of the , Philip Augustus was born at in the , the son of and of his third wife,. As he immediately desired to repudiate her, an assembly of complaisant barons and pronounced the , but Ingeburga appealed to. During Philip's reign the pope proclaimed the Crusade against the. New York: Robert Appleton Company. He then attacked 1187 the English territories in France. On 30 March 1191 the French set sail for the Holy Land and Philip arrived on 20 May. Advising the English King of his precarious predicament, he persuaded John to abandon his opposition to and agreed to accept the Papal Legate's decision in any ecclesiastical disputes as final.
Thus was inaugurated the policy by which meddled in the affairs of and for the first time the French king claimed, like the , to have a voice in the imperial election. At the time of its construction, eleven main gates were laid out. After his conquest of Normandy, Philip subdued Maine, Touraine, Anjou, and most of Poitou with less difficulty 1204—05 , though the castles of Loches and Chinon held out for a year. The death of Henry's eldest son, in June 1183 began a dispute over the of the widowed , who was Philip's sister, who insisted that it should be returned to France as the marriage did not produce any children, as per the betrothal agreement. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1977. Ingeborg, however, remained steadfast, insisting that she and Philip had slept together on their wedding night.
Only 24 years old, Philip acted with skill and energy, defeating the hostile powers and winning the army's support. By 1215, his fleet could carry a total of 7,000 men. At Lepanto, in 1571, the Catholic forces devastated the enemy fleet. By the time Acre surrendered on 12 July, Philip was severely ill with which reduced his crusading zeal. The upshot was that by the fall of 1198, Richard had regained almost all that had been lost in 1193.
Most of all, Philip gave his attention to Paris, not only fortifying it with a great rampart but also having its streets and thoroughfares put in order. As a result, the churchmen, sympathetic to their king, determined that the marriage was void. Shortly after this Richard died. Philip was aware that contacts had been made between his son and political enemies. Philip had spent this time consolidating his territorial gains, and by now was controlling much of Normandy east of the , and remaining within striking distance of Rouen. Now, because of political expediency, she was not only free, but reinstated as queen, accorded the respect and dignity she had had a right to since her wedding day in 1193. For the Paris Métro station, see.
Near the Seine, Philip Augustus built with a fortified and ten defensive towers surrounded by a moat. But he did not allow the communes to infringe on the of or the episcopal right of. By the time Philip died, he had become the richest and most powerful lord in the realm. Despite the construction during the 14th century of encircling Philip Augustus' wall on the Right Bank, the latter wall was not demolished. Often ill and increasingly at odds with the Engish king, Philip left for home soon after the fall of Acre, eager to continue the consolidation and expansion of his realm. A German who spoke English, Knaut had the trust of his fellow Lunenburgers, and in the elections to the first House of Assembly in 1758 he had the support, almost to a man, of the 44 freeholders with foreign names. In English, Philip is discussed in more general works on his time: Achille Luchaive, Social France at the Time of Philip Augustus 1912 ; Charles Petit-Dutaillis, The Feudal Monarchy in France and England from the Tenth to the Thirteenth Century 1936 ; Robert Fawtier, The Capetian Kings of France: Monarchy and Nation, 987-1328 1962 ; and Kenneth Setton, A History of the Crusades 2 vols.
In fact, he refused to cohabit with her and kept her in semicaptivity until 1213, when he accepted her beside him—not as his wife but at least as his queen. The lieutenant governor was also ordered to take other action that would have been injurious to Gerrish and his brother. In 1189 Henry was forced to recognize Richard as heir to all his lands and Philip as his feudal lord for his lands in France. By now both sides were tiring, and they agreed to the temporary Truce of Tillières. Please help improve this section by. He was automatically elected commander in chief of the self-governing military allies. Bradbury's contention is that Philip was a better ruler, and a more admirable man, than most Anglophone scholarship has portrayed him given the bias of many British historians in favour of Richard I of England.